Model Response Guidance to Active Shooter Hostile Event (ASHE)

The Florida Fire Chiefs Association (FFCA) Domestic Security Resource Committee (DSRC) has recently formed an Active Shooter (Assailant) Committee a sub-committee of the DSRC. I have been appointed the Chair and Chief Otto Drozd from Orange County Fire Rescue is the Board of Director liaison. I have been directed to have the work group review the 2 attached documents, I have attached the pre-hospital MCI/Active Shooter (Assailant) Procedure that several of us have been working on, as well as the FFCA draft model response guidance to active shooter hostile events. Please provide feedback on the documents and share any other documents you have that may be helpful for the group.

Thank you, I look forward to working with you.

Julie Downey, Fire Chief
Davie Fire Rescue
6901 Orange Drive | Davie, FL 33314


In addition, below are just some of the many resources that already exist to help guide those agencies/facilities who have decided to pursue a more prepared community through integrated response. (just click control and the link).

Active Shooter and Complex Attack Resources - Source: DHS Office of Health Affairs

As recent events so tragically demonstrate, we continue to face ongoing threats in an uncertain world. Active shooter events, the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and the threat of complex coordinated attacks must be considered as at least plausible, if not probable.

A pre-planned, integrated response by all first responder disciplines is required in order to maximize effectiveness and improve the survivability of those injured in such attacks. Some of the considered actions may seem contrary to those responders indoctrinated in the time-honored doctrine of “scene safety trumps all.” The truth is that the first responder community now has decades of response and trauma data to be used as the foundation for evidence-based best practices. Many communities have already established integrated response programs, and there is no reason for any jurisdiction to “reinvent the wheel” from scratch. While there is no “one-size fits all” solution to the challenge of integrated response, there are already model communities of different sizes and compositions. From rural to urban, volunteer to paid, and everything in between – somewhere, in a system a lot like yours, someone has already done much of the ground work. And the benefits of integrated response extend well beyond those realized during the rare terror attack. Relationships between police, fire, and EMS agencies that are formed (and enhanced) during pre-planning and training will pay great dividends during all requests for service from routine calls to natural disasters.


MCI/Active Shooter Hostile Event

Pre-hospital MCI/Active Shooter/Hostile Event Response Procedures

MCI Fog State Generic Procedure Form


Training for Complex Coordinated Attacks

E912: Preparing Communities for a Complex Coordinated Attack – IEMC: Community Specific


Integrated response (culture change):

First Responder Guide for Improving Survivability in Improvised Explosive Device and/or Active Shooter Incidents

Fire/Emergency Medical Services Department Operational Considerations and Guide for Active Shooter and Mass Casualty Incidents

Improving Active Shooter/Hostile Event Response: Best Practices and Recommendations for Integrating Law Enforcement, Fire, and EMS

A Study of Active Shooter Incidents in the United States Between 2000 and 2013

Active Shooter Study: Quick Reference Guide


Hemorrhage Control (Early care saves lives)

See Something, Do Something: Improving Survival – Strategies to Enhance Survival in Active Shooter and Intentional Mass Casualty Events: A Compendium

An Evidence-Based Prehospital Guideline for External Hemorrhage Control: American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma


Prevailing Response Models and Concepts:

Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training

Rescue Task Force

Committee on Tactical Emergency Casualty Care

Improving Active Shooter/Hostile Event Response: Best Practices and Recommendations for Integrating Law Enforcement, Fire, and EMS


Bystander Preparedness and Response:

Stop the Bleed (DHS)

Stop the Bleed (DoD)

Bleeding Control for the Injured (B-Con)


Grant opportunities:

Purchase of Ballistic Protective Equipment (BPE) for Fire and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Personnel in Support of Active Shooter and Mass Casualty Incidents (AS/MCIs)

U.S. Department of Justice Bulletproof Vest Partnership


Other Resources:

Federal Bureau of Investigation – Active Shooter Incidents